Hello, world!! I am Efstratios Gavves . Since Sep 2016 am an Assistant Professor at UVA and the Scientific Manager of QUVA Lab, together with Professor A.W.M. Smeulders, Professor M. Welling and Associate Professor C.G.M. Snoek, a joint effort between Qualcomm and UVA.
My research lies on the intersection of Computer Vision and Deep Learning. My particular computer vision focus is on learning univeral spatiotemporal representations, whereas my machine learning focus is on learning to learn. Besides research, I also teach the Deep Learning for the MSc program at the University of Amsterdam.
Since last year, I am excited to co-organize the Qualcomm-UvA Deep Vision Seminars, with prominent speakers like Prof. I. Kokkinos, Dr. M. Jaderberg, J. Yosinksi, Dr. M. Bethge, Dr. J. Sivic, Dr. A. Vezhnevets. Our next speraker is Dr. O. Vinyals from Google DeepMind.
This paper strives to track a target object in a video. Rather than specifying the target in the first frame of a video by a bounding box, we propose to track the object based on a natural language specification of the target. The main contribution of this paper is tracking by natural language specification, which allows for a novel type of humanmachine interaction in tracking. As a second contribution we define three variants of tracking by language specification: one relying on lingual target specification only, one relying on visual target specification based on language, and one leveraging their joint potential. As third novelty we enrich standard tracking by human-provided bounding box with our language specification. To show the potential of tracking by natural language specification we extend two popular tracking datasets with lingual descriptions and report experiments. Finally, we also sketch new tracking scenarios in surveillance and other live video streams that become feasible with a lingual specification of the target.
pdf | bib | project | dataset | code | arXiv
We propose a new self-supervised CNN pre-training technique based on a novel auxiliary task called "odd-one-out learning". In this task, the machine is asked to identify the unrelated or odd element from a set of otherwise related elements. We apply this technique to self-supervised video representation learning where we sample subsequences from videos and ask the network to learn to predict the odd video subsequence. The odd video subsequence is sampled such that it has wrong temporal order of frames while the even ones have the correct temporal order. Therefore, to generate a odd-one-out question no manual annotation is required. Our learning machine is implemented as multi-stream convolutional neural network, which is learned end-to-end. Using odd-one-out networks, we learn temporal representations for videos that generalizes to other related tasks such as action recognition. On action classification, our method obtains 60.3\% on the UCF101 dataset using only UCF101 data for training which is approximately 10% better than current state-of-the-art self-supervised learning methods. Similarly, on HMDB51 dataset we outperform self-supervised state-of-the art methods by 12.7% on action classification task.
pdf | bib | project | arXiv
Event detection in unconstrained videos is conceived as a content-based video retrieval with two modalities: textual and visual. Given a text describing a novel event, the goal is to rank related videos accordingly. This task is zero-exemplar, no video examples are given to the novel event. Related works train a bank of concept detectors on external data sources. These detectors predict confidence scores for test videos, which are ranked and retrieved accordingly. In contrast, we learn a joint space in which the visual and textual representations are embedded. The space casts a novel event as a probability of pre-defined events. Also, it learns to measure the distance between an event and its related videos. Our model is trained end-to-end on publicly available EventNet. When applied to TRECVID Multimedia Event Detection dataset, it outperforms the state-of-the-art by a considerable margin.
pdf | bib | project | arXiv
We present a new architecture for end-to-end sequence learning of actions in video, we call VideoLSTM. Rather than adapting the video to the peculiarities of established recurrent or convolutional architectures, we adapt the architecture to fit the requirements of the video medium. Starting from the soft-Attention LSTM, VideoLSTM makes three novel contributions. First, video has a spatial layout. To exploit the spatial correlation we hardwire convolutions in the soft-Attention LSTM architecture. Second, motion not only informs us about the action content, but also guides better the attention towards the relevant spatio-temporal locations. We introduce motion-based attention. And finally, we demonstrate how the attention from VideoLSTM can be used for action localization by relying on just the action class label. Experiments and comparisons on challenging datasets for action classification and localization support our claims.
bib | arXiv
In online action detection, the goal is to detect the start of an action in a video stream as soon as it happens. For instance, if a child is chasing a ball, an autonomous car should recognize what is going on and respond immediately. This is a very challenging problem for four reasons. First, only partial actions are observed. Second, there is a large variability in negative data. Third, the start of the action is unknown, so it is unclear over what time window the information should be integrated. Finally, in real world data, large within-class variability exists. This problem has been addressed before, but only to some extent. Our contributions to online action detection are threefold. First, we introduce a realistic dataset composed of 27 episodes from 6 popular TV series. The dataset spans over 16 hours of footage annotated with 30 action classes, totaling 6,231 action instances. Second, we analyze and compare various baseline methods, showing this is a challenging problem for which none of the methods provides a good solution. Third, we analyze the change in performance when there is a variation in viewpoint, occlusion, truncation, etc. We introduce an evaluation protocol for fair comparison. The dataset, the baselines and the models will all be made publicly available to encourage (much needed) further research on online action detection on realistic data.
pdf | bib | project | dataset | arXiv
In this paper we present a tracker, which is radically different from state-of-the-art trackers: we apply no model updating, no occlusion detection, no combination of trackers, no geometric matching, and still deliver state-of-the-art tracking performance, as demonstrated on the popular online tracking benchmark (OTB) and six very challenging YouTube videos. The presented tracker simply matches the initial patch of the target in the first frame with candidates in a new frame and returns the most similar patch by a learned matching function. The strength of the matching function comes from being extensively trained generically, i.e., without any data of the target, using a Siamese deep neural network, which we design for tracking. Once learned, the matching function is used as is, without any adapting, to track previously unseen targets. It turns out that the learned matching function is so powerful that a simple tracker built upon it, coined Siamese INstance search Tracker, SINT, which only uses the original observation of the target from the first frame, suffices to reach state-of-the-art performance. Further, we show the proposed tracker even allows for target re-identification after the target was absent for a complete video shot.
pdf | bib | project & code | arXiv
We introduce the concept of dynamic image, a novel compact representation of videos useful for video analysis especially when convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are used. The dynamic image is based on the rank pooling concept and is obtained through the parameters of a ranking machine that encodes the temporal evolution of the frames of the video. Dynamic images are obtained by directly applying rank pooling on the raw image pixels of a video producing a single RGB image per video. This idea is simple but powerful as it enables the use of existing CNN models directly on video data with fine-tuning. We present an efficient and effective approximate rank pooling operator, speeding it up orders of magnitude compared to rank pooling. Our new approximate rank pooling CNN layer allows us to generalize dynamic images to dynamic feature maps and we demonstrate the power of our new representations on standard benchmarks in action recognition achieving state-of-the-art performance.
pdf | bib | github | arXiv
Undoing the image formation process and therefore decomposing appearance into its intrinsic properties is a challenging task due to the under-constrained nature of this inverse problem. While significant progress has been made on inferring shape, materials and illumination from images only, progress in an unconstrained setting is still limited. We propose a convolutional neural architecture to estimate reflectance maps of specular materials in natural lighting conditions. We achieve this in an end-to-end learning formulation that directly predicts a reflectance map from the image itself. We show how to improve estimates by facilitating additional supervision in an indirect scheme that first predicts surface orientation and afterwards predicts the reflectance map by a learning-based sparse data interpolation. In order to analyze performance on this difficult task, we propose a new challenge of Specular MAterials on SHapes with complex IllumiNation (SMASHINg) using both synthetic and real images. Furthermore, we show the application of our method to a range of image editing tasks on real images.
pdf | bib | project | arXiv
How can we reuse existing knowledge, in the form of available datasets, when solving a new and apparently unrelated target task from a set of unlabeled data? In this work we make a first contribution to answer this question in the context of image classification. We frame this quest as an active learning problem and use zero-shot classifiers to guide the learning process by linking the new task to the existing classifiers. By revisiting the dual formulation of adaptive SVM, we reveal two basic conditions to choose greedily only the most relevant samples to be annotated. On this basis we propose an effective active learning algorithm which learns the best possible target classification model with minimum human labeling effort. Extensive experiments on two challenging datasets show the value of our approach compared to the state-of-the-art active learning methodologies, as well as its potential to reuse past datasets with minimal effort for future tasks.
pdf | bib | code | arXiv
In this work we focus on the problem of image caption generation. We propose an extension of the long short term memory (LSTM) model, which we coin gLSTM for short. In particular, we add semantic information extracted from the image as extra input to each unit of the LSTM block, with the aim of guiding the model towards solutions that are more tightly coupled to the image content. Additionally, we explore different length normalization strategies for beam search in order to prevent from favoring short sentences. On various benchmark datasets such as Flickr8K, Flickr30K and MS COCO, we obtain results that are on par with or even outperform the current state-of-the-art.
pdf | bib | code | arXiv
We present a supervised learning to rank algorithm that effectively orders images by exploiting the structure in image sequences especially focusing on image re-ranking applications. Most often in the supervised learning to rank literature, ranking is approached either by analyzing pairs of images or by optimizing a list-wise surrogate loss function on full sequences. In this work we propose MidRank, which learns from moderately sized sub-sequences instead. These sub-sequences contain useful structural ranking information that leads to better learnability during training and better generalization during testing. By exploiting sub-sequences, the proposed MidRank improves ranking accuracy considerably on an extensive array of image re-ranking applications and datasets.
pdf | bib | code | arXiv
In this paper we present a method to capture video-wide temporal information for action recognition. We postulate that a function capable of ordering the frames of a video temporally (based on the appearance) captures well the evolution of the appearance within the video. We learn such ranking functions per video via a ranking machine and use the parameters of these as a new video representation. The proposed method is easy to interpret and implement, fast to compute and effective in recognizing a wide variety of actions. We perform a large number of evaluations on datasets for generic action recognition (Hollywood2 and HMDB51), fine-grained actions (MPII- cooking activities) and gestures (Chalearn). Results show that the proposed method brings an absolute improvement of 7-10\%, while being compatible with and complementary to further improvements in appearance and local motion based methods.
Oral [~3% acceptance rate]
pdf | bib | project | bitbucket
—An emerging trend in video event classification is to learn an event from a bank of concept detector scores. Different from existing work, which simply relies on a bank containing all available detectors, we propose in this paper an algorithm that learns from examples what concepts in a bank are most informative per event, which we call the conceptlet. We model finding the conceptlet out of a large set of concept detectors as an importance sampling problem. Our proposed approximate algorithm finds the optimal conceptlet using a cross-entropy optimization. We study the behavior of video event classification based on conceptlets by performing four experiments on challenging internet video from the 2010 and 2012 TRECVID multimedia event detection tasks and Columbia’s consumer video dataset. Starting from a concept bank of more than thousand precomputed detectors, our experiments establish there are (sets of) individual concept detectors that are more discriminative and appear to be more descriptive for a particular event than others, event classification using an automatically obtained conceptlet is more robust than using all available concepts, and conceptlets obtained with our cross-entropy algorithm are better than conceptlets from state-of-the-art feature selection algorithms. What is more, the conceptlets make sense for the events of interest, without being programmed to do so.
pdf | bib
In this paper we aim for object classification and segmentation by attributes. Where existing work considers attributes either for the global image or for the parts of the object, we propose, as our first novelty, to learn and extract attributes on segments containing the entire object. Object-level attributes suffer less from accidental content around the object and accidental image conditions such as partial occlusions, scale changes and viewpoint changes. As our second novelty, we propose joint learning for simultaneous object classification and segment proposal ranking, solely on the basis of attributes. This naturally brings us to our third novelty: object-level attributes for zero-shot, where we use attribute descriptions of unseen classes for localizing their instances in new images and classifying them accordingly. Results on the Caltech UCSD Birds, Leeds Butterflies, and an a-Pascal subset demonstrate that i) extracting attributes on oracle object-level brings substantial benefits ii) our joint learning model leads to accurate attribute-based classification and segmentation, approaching the oracle results and iii) object-level attributes also allow for zero-shot classification and segmentation. We conclude that attributes make sense on segmented objects.
pdf | bib
University of Amsterdam
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